There are many causes of infertility in men.
1- Medical causes
• Problems with semen
Semen is the milky fluid which consists of fluid and sperm. When a man ejaculates, the seminal fluid facilitates the movement of the sperms. Also, it has the nutrients essential for the life of sperms. The problems with semen results about 75% of all cases of male infertility. Unfortunately, there are many possible problems with semen:
Low sperms count:
The normal count of sperms is 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. SO, If the count is under 10 million, the chance of fertilization will significantly decrease causing infertility.
when the man ejaculates, there is no sperm in the semen.
the sperm cannot move so that they cannot reach the ovum.
the abnormal morphology and motility changes of the sperm, make it more difficult to reach and fertilize the ovum.
Swelling of the testicular veins is one of the most common causes of male infertility. However, the way how the varicocele affect man’s fertility is unknown. But scientists think that the cause is related to abnormal high temperature, which reduce the quality of the sperms.
• Testicular Infection
Infections may affect sperm production or block the passage of sperms. It may be sexually transmitted infections such as, gonorrhea and HIV.
• Ejaculation disorders
In case of Retrograde ejaculation, semen is ejaculated into the bladder. There are many health conditions can cause retrograde ejaculation, including diabetes, spinal injuries, medications, and surgery of the bladder.
• Hormonal disturbance
Hormonal disturbance in some glands may cause infertility such as the pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands.
• Certain medications
Therapies such as Testosterone replacement therapy, and chemotherapy, Sulfasalazine, Anabolic steroids, antifungal medications, ulcer drugs and other medications can affect sperm production and cause male infertility.
• Undescended testicles
Normally, during the fetal life, the testis originate in the abdomen then it descends to its normal site. In some cases, one or both testicles fail to descend which in turn Decrease the fertility.
Certain surgeries may cause infertility, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries.
• Illegal drugs
such as marijuana and cocaine.
Health causes lifestyle causes
• Alcohol use
Drinking alcohol affects testosterone level and decrease sperm production. Liver disease (as cirrhosis) caused by excessive drinking of alcohols also may lead to infertility.
• Tobacco smoking
It decreases the sperm count.
• Emotional stress
In case of Severe and prolonged emotional stress cause many problems, including problems with fertility (affects the sperm count).
It may cause infertility directly (impacting sperm themselves) or indirectly via hormonal changes that reduce male fertility.
• Some diseases
Anemia, Cushing’s syndrome, Diabetes as well as Thyroid disease.
• Overheating the testicles
Frequent saunas, very hot baths, or extremely hot environments affect the production of sperms by raising the temperature of the testicles. Also, Tight clothing may cause infertility.
If there is a deficiency of testosterone hormone, this may result in a disorder of the testicles.
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