We all know about cancer, the malignant disease. Scientists know its danger so they had to use chemotherapy. But, unfortunately, chemotherapy sometimes fails.
What is chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy is a drug used for the treatment of cancer. In general, there are many types of it:
1. Standard chemotherapy: it works by destroying the cells with rapid growth. And its target differs according to the type of cancer and rate of spreading.
2. Palliative chemotherapy:
Unfortunately, if the cancer cells have rapid growth rate, the main goal will be the delaying only. And that will be accompanied by symptoms.
3. Immunotherapy: also called biologic therapy. It works by improving immunity through boosting substance made by the body or in the lab. It has many ways to work:
A. Stopping cancer cells from spreading to other parts.
B. Slowing the growth of cancer cells.
c. helping the immune system to destroy cancer cells.
4. Targeted therapy:
It has the same mission of the standard but in a different way. It aims to destroy specific proteins or genes in cancer cells.
Scientists try to develop these new drugs that can:
1. Kill cancer cells efficiently.
2. Shorten their lifespan.
3. Block signals that make cancer cells grow and divide.
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The reason of chemotherapy failing
A group of international Researcher recently found out bacteria called
Gammaproteobacteria can produce enzyme neutralize chemo.
The study of 100 pancreatic tumors of humans showed that the bacteria have a long form of cytidine deaminase (CDD) gene. They thought This gene can stop gemcitabine from working effectively.
Scientists searched for another reason of resistance. And discovered that skin cells may improve pancreatic cancer cells and make it impervious to the chemo drug.
Also, they found the reason of skin contribution in resistance is Contamination.
Dr. Ravid Straussman said, “We nearly threw it away, but then we decided to follow it up, instead.”
To make sure that Gammaproteobacteria have a role in resistance. A study made by using a group of mice with cancer.
They were divided into two groups:
Group A: infected with bacteria has CDD gene.
Group B: infected with bacteria didn’t have the gene.
The results, group A showed resistance to chemo drug. Treated only when chemo accompanied by the antibiotic.
Group B treated directly.
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Sadly, these bacteria present in pancreatic tumors. They have the ability to break down the chemotherapy, gemcitabine. They have beliefs that is one reason of chemo failing.
After a great effort, scientists found that using Antibiotic with chemo drug may treat tumors effectively. They published this research in Science.
Dr. Ravid Straussman, of the Weizmann Institute in Israel, said, “Because the topic is so new, we first used different methods to prove that there really were bacteria inside the tumors. Then we decided to look at the effect that these bacteria might have on chemotherapy,”