Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, or PCOS, means a set of symptoms that affect women aged 18 and older due to elevated androgens (male hormones).
By the way, you should know that Hormones are the chemical regulators that help the body carry out its physiological functions properly.
So, When hormone levels are disrupted due to an agent, a series of reactions occur within the body and causes hormone-related issues that must be dealt with individually.
Normally, Both males and females have estrogen and androgen in their bodies. However, there must be a balance between these hormones in order for a person to live normally.
Unless there is the balance between these hormones, there will be symptoms such as balding, acne or PCOS which suddenly manifested.
1- Hormonal disorders
PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder among women between the ages of 18 and 44.There are approximately 2% to 20% of women have PCOS of this age group since 1721. Nearly, It is the commonest cause of poor fertility in women.
When a woman has Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, the hormone balance is disrupted. Sometimes, a PCOS patient has a very low estrogen levels compared to the high level of androgen.
2- Genetic disease
The polycystic ovarian syndrome is a result of many genetic and environmental factors.
This disease is a genetic one that may be transmitted to you from father or mother.
The gene may lay dormant for many generations, but it may be reactivated in the next. So, it can skip generations, but it doesn’t disappear.
3- Insulin resistance and obesity
Rarely, PCOS is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disorders, and endometrial cancer (cancer in the uterus).
Obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance. Both obesity and insulin resistance usually increase the risk of type 2 diabetes.
There are approximately 70 % of a Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome patients have insulin resistance, that means the cells within their bodies can’t use insulin, but it remains in the blood vessels. Hence, the body’s demand for insulin increases and The pancreas makes more insulin to compensate the body demands. Furthermore, Extra insulin triggers the ovaries to produce more male hormones.
Also, doctors noticed that Women with PCOS often have high levels of inflammation in their whole body.
Overweight and obesity can contribute to inflammation as well.
There are many Signs and symptoms of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, such as:
1- irregular or no menstrual periods: due to the lack of ovulation there will be a prevention of shedding the uterine lining every month. So, many cases get fewer than eight periods during the whole year.
2- excess body and facial hair (hirsutism): PCOS patients have a grown hair on their entire body. The hair on their face, back, belly, and chest. This condition occurs in 70% of patients.
3- Acne: these patients have a high level of androgen (male hormone). Therefore, the skin becomes more humid and oilier than usual, causing breakouts in some areas like the face and chest.
4- patches of thick and dark skin: they also have thick and Dark patches of skin that form in the neck, in the groin, and under the breasts.
5- Overweight: nearly 80 percent of PCOS patients are obese people.
6- Heavy bleeding: as we mentioned there will be an irregular or no menstrual periods, The uterine lining builds up for a long period. So, there will be bleeding heavier than normal.
7- Headaches: Hormonal disturbance may trigger headaches in some patients.
Effects of PCOS on the body
there is irregular or no ovulation in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome patients. So, the percent of fertilization is very low and it is hard to be pregnant. PCOS is the commonest cause of infertility in women.
both hormonal disturbance and psychological disturbance due to symptoms like hair growth and the headache has a negative impact on the person. Hence, they get depression and anxiety.
3- Metabolic syndrome
PCOS increase the risk of both high blood pressure, high blood sugar.
Also, it affects the level of cholesterol by decreasing the level of HDL (good), and on the other hand increasing the level of LDL (bad).
As a result, the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and stroke will increase significantly.
4- Sleep apnea
it is repeated stopping of breathing during the sleep, which interrupts sleep. It is more common in overweight women. The risk of sleep apnea increases up to 5 to 10 times in obese women with PCOS than in healthy ones.
Treatment of PCOS
The PCOS patient has no treatment for rheumatism, but changes in lifestyle may improve her case.
Changing the lifestyle include weight loss and exercise.
Contraceptive pills, Metformin and anti-androgens help with improving the regularity of menstrual periods, excess hair growth, as well as acne.
Also, clomiphene, or metformin and even weight loss help in improving the fertility a little.
Many of PCOS patients use In vitro fertilization as the main method for pregnancy and getting kids.
You can also reduce the impact of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome through diet by making processed food about 90% of your meals. However, it takes time to cook the food at home, but it has natural ingredients and not expensive.
Know that the more processed food you eat, the better you will feel.
Also, You should be aware of the number of calories you are consuming, and how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you are eating per day.
Read Also: Dangerous Health Risks Of Obesity